I am going to start updating this information for 4.0.1 and Cataclysm.

Please visit the Survival Talents Preview page to learn more about the talents in the survival tree.

Check out this Survival leveling build to become a great Survival hunter.

Survival PvE Spec:

Cataclysm 7/3/31: This spec is very solid. It provides some boosts to your pet with Frenzy. It also gets the powerful One With Nature and also reduces focus costs with Efficiency. The one point in Serpent Spread is simply to progress down the ladder.

4.0.1 3/2/31: I chose to leave One With Nature at rank 3 because I believe the attack power bonus will outweigh the benefit of saving 2 extra focus per Arcane or Explosive Shot.

Explosive Shot, Arcane Shot
Kill Shot
Kill Command, Rapid Fire, Serpent Sting
Explosive Shot and Arcane Shot will be up to the numbers in the end. SV has very high crit in the first place and you might not even need the Explosive Shot glyph, in which case Arcane Shot would be a better choice. Kill shot I believe will be the one glyph ever spec has. It allows for 2 instant Kill Shots on a 6 second cooldown. The last will come down to the numbers. The extra time added from Serpent Sting plus Cobra Shot might be worth it so you don't have to keep reapplying Serpent Sting, but if Cobra Shot can keep Serpent Sting up then it won't be worth it. So then it would come down to Kill Command and Rapid Fire. In SV I can see Kill Command not being used as much since Black Arrow and Explosive Shot take up a big chunk of focus therefore making Rapid Fire the obvious choice.

Wyvern Sting
Trap Launcher
Misdirection I believe will be a glyph every spec uses. It allows you to instantly send some of your threat to your pet and immediately after send more towards the tank allowing you to be able to focus on dps rather than threat. Wyvern Sting is really the only other glyph that deals with SV. Lastly, I picked trap launcher just because nothing else really fit. Less focus to throw out traps might be useful.

Aspect of the Pack
Feign Death
Mend Pet
There isn't much to choose from, these are the exact same in all three specs. The others left don't really provide anything special.

Gemming (4.0.1):
Survival hunters gem for agility and crit/haste. There is no more armor penetration all the armor pen gems will turn into crit. 

Delicate Cardinal Ruby
Bright Cardinal Ruby

Rigid King's Amber
Quick King's Amber

Rigid Majestic Zircon

Glinting Dreadstone

Lightning Eye of Zul

Deadly Ametrine
Deft Ametrine

Nightmare Tear

Relentless Earthsiege Diamond

Socket Bonuses:
You should put your prismatic in your best socket bonus blue slot. Socket bonuses should only be activated if they contain a +6 agi or higher or +12 ap or higher bonus. Otherwise all red sockets should be agi, and all yellow sockets should contain deadly ametrine.

Gemming (Cataclysm):

Delicate Inferno Ruby
Delicate Carnelian

Fracture Amberjewel
Quick Amberjewel
Fractured Alicite
Quick Alicite

Rigid Ocean Sapphire
Rigid Zephyrite

Lighning Dream Emerald
Sensei's Dream Emerald
Lightning Jasper
Sensei's Jasper

Adept Ember Topaz
Deft Ember Topaz
Deadly Ember Topaz
Adept Hessonite
Deft Hessonite
Deadly Hessonite

Glinting Demonseye
Glinting Nightstone

Haven't seen any

Chaotic Shadowspirit Diamond

Socket Bonuses:
As of right now there is only one gem socket per piece of gear so you can put your prismatic into your best blue socket (if you have more than one). You can put hit in the other (if needed). Otherwise agi into red, mastery or haste into yellow, or put an orange if you would like.

See Cataclysm Enchants